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Category Archives: Navigation

celestial navigation

Celestial Navigation

What is Celestial Navigation!!! Celestial navigation includes finding your ships position at sea using various celestial bodies such as the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. It does not imply navigation among the stars as you probably imagined.  While there are various modem

distress signals

Distress Signals

Recognition of, and use of, emergency and distress signals  Distress signals should be as distinctive as possible, so that they may be recognised at once and assistance dispatched immediately. In this context, it has been found that the best distress signals are red parachute flares

Master standing order and night orders

Master Standing Instructions & Night Orders

Why Master Standing Instructions is Important?? Various conventions, codes and guides provide the framework within which officers’ duties shall be performed in nearly all cases of routine and many extraordinary circumstances. Operational procedures will be based upon the owner’s navigation policy and these should work

Correction To Sextant Altitudes

Why Correct Altitude As you have already learnt that the altitudes of the sextant are observed above the visible horizon. Eventually that altitude needs to be converted as an altitude above the rational horizon, which is a line parallel to the sensible horizon, passing through

bank suction

Manoeuvring in Shallow Waters

How shallow water affects Manoeuvring? In shallow waters, manoeuvring has very many facets and it is necessary that we understand the same clearly. Such knowledge helps us to understand the effects of interactions including squat and the sluggish way the ship handles in such waters.


Traffic Separation Scheme

What is Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) Traffic Separation Schemes are designed to ease congestion, assist traffic flow and prevent ships approaching head on to each other in the busier waterways of the world. Their use should make navigation simple, but a great number of close

turning circle

Stopping Distance, Turning Circle, Ships Manoeuvring

Stopping Distance Stopping distance is the distance, which, a ship will continue to move after action is taken to stop engines and till the ship comes to rest. Stopping distance details may be provided for sea speed, harbour speed, half speed etc. It may be


Rising and Setting – Azimuth by Amplitude Twilight

After reading this blog, you will be able to take amplitude of the heavenly bodies and calculate the compass error. Ensure that you workout such errors as frequently as possible when on onboard.  Since refraction causes celestial bodies to appear elevated in the sky, they

gmdss sea area

GMDSS (Equipments and Procedures)

Preamble IMO began work on the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System in the 1970s and its introduction marks the biggest change in maritime communications since the invention of radio.  It has been introduced in stages between 1993 and 1st February 1999. The basic concept


Cloud Classification and Formation

Objective To understand classification of clouds, the various types of clouds and the weather associated with each. Classification Clouds are classified according to the height of the base above sea level and their appearance. Low clouds, medium clouds and high clouds. Clouds can form at