Browse By

Category Archives: Maritime Law

Understanding ISPS Code

What is ISPS code? ISPS code is the International Ship and Port facility Security code. SOLAS chapter XI-2 part A and part B relates to special measures to enhance maritime security. In this context the principles behind ISPS code is similar to the ISM code

P & I Club (Protection and Indemnity)

Introduction The present day P&I market provides third party liability cover to the ship owners worldwide on a non-profit making “mutual” basis as opposed to the commercial insurers who understandably provide insurance for all other risks to earn profit in order to pay dividends to

Mariner Role In Collecting Evidence

BASIC PRINCIPLES a) Legal dispute is an inherent risk in shipping business. b) Availability of evidence is essential in settling any dispute. c) If good, clear and methodical records and documents are produced, following advantages will accrue : Disputes and claims will be resolved quickly.

Civil Liability For Bunker Pollution Damages

Adoption: 23 March 2001; Entry into force: 21 November 2008 ​The Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers. The Convention applies to

Difference Between Towage & Salvage

What is Towage??  Towage is the act of having one ship or boat pull (tow) another. The puller is referred to as the tug, while the vessel pulled is referred to as the tow. Ships specialized for towing are called tugboats. Ships without motive power, which can only

Civil Liability Convention For Oil Pollution Damages

Adoption: 29 November 1969; Entry into force: 19 June 1975; Being replaced by 1992 Protocol: Adoption: 27 November 1992; Entry into force: 30 May 1996 The Civil Liability Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer oil pollution damage

The Supplementary Fund Protocol

1. The Supplementary Fund Protocol, which was adopted in 2003,   entered into force in 2005, thereby establishing the International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary Fund, 2003 (Supplementary Fund).  2. The Supplementary Fund provides additional compensation beyond the amount available under the 1992 Fund Convention in 1992 Fund Member


Salvage and the essential elements in a salvage service “Salvage” is a service rendered by a person who saves or helps to save any maritime property in danger. Salvage must be considered from three legal aspects • The common law aspect; • The statutory aspect;

Port of Refuge

Port of Refuge – A port of Refuge is a port or place that the vessel diverts to when her master considers it is unsafe to continue the voyage due to peril that threatens the “common safety”, e.g. when there is a dangerous ingress of