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Category Archives: Merchant Shipping

Off Hire

Time charterparties invariably contain an off-hire clause providing for exceptions from the obligation for charterers to pay hire from the time of delivery until redelivery. The specific terms of the off-hire clause will determine whether or not any particular event entitles the charterers to place

Safe ports and berths

Generally a port can be rendered unsafe due to: Sandbanks and shallows Obstructions such as wrecks An inadequate system at the port (such as weather warnings, mooring facilities and tug availability) to enable a ship to leave the port when weather conditions make it unsafe

Notice Of Readiness

A Notice of Readiness (“NOR”) is a notification by the vessel that she is ready to start the charter service (upon delivery) or is ready to load or discharge cargo. Giving an NOR has two purposes: (i) to inform the charterers that the vessel is

Charter Party

What is a liner trade and how is it different from a tramp trade Liner trade is a trade where a ship is operated on one or more fixed routes with advertised and scheduled sailing. True passenger liners operating on ocean services were mostly displaced

Trade and Finance

To examine Bills of Lading under International Conventions, first we should know mechanics of imports & exports, and how they affect Masters. B/L is usually an essential document required under the terms of a letter of credit. Both are negotiable instruments, and can be bought


York Antwerp Rules

York Antwerp Rules Definition The York Antwerp Rules are a set of model internal maritime rules concerning the rights and obligations of vessel and cargo owners when cargo aboard a vessel must be jettisoned (thrown overboard). The rules were created by an international committee in

flag of convenience

Flag Of Convenience

Flags of convenience came into existence in the late sixties. In the earlier stage, they were not welcome. Now they have not only come to stay but the established maritime nations also are now establishing such registration procedures.  We shall learn why flag of convenience

certificate of origin

Cargo Documentation

No job is complete before the paper work is done and this hold true for us seafarers also. There are various documents related to cargo which you must be aware of when loading, carrying and discharging cargoes. A few basic ones are mentioned below. Some


Salvage and Towage

Under Article 98 OF UNCLOS, Master has a legal duty to proceed with all possible speed to render assistance to any person in distress at sea nearby, without serious danger to his vessel, her crew and passengers. Under Regulation 10-1 of SOLAS 1974, master shall

general average

General Average

General Average (GA) “Extraordinary sacrifice made voluntarily and prudently, to save a common maritime adventure from imminent peril,” is GA sacrifice. This principle developed over centuries, meant that if few merchants sent a ship to sea for common gain, any sacrifice made or expanse incurred