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Tank cleaning It is customary to clean the cargo tanks as a preparation to load the next cargo after the cargo is discharged and the tanker sails out from the discharge port. This is done because the next cargo may not be compatible with the


Types of Valves You have by now understood the functions of a valve. These act as controls and allow or stop flow of any material. In the study of these valves, it is necessary to understand: The mechanism which controls the flow, Operation of the


METHODS OF CONTROL Before any cargo operations are carried out it is essential that cargo tanks be thoroughly inspected for cleanliness; that all loose objects are removed; and that all fittings are properly secured. In addition, any free water must be removed. Once this inspection

Cargo Pumps

A cargo pump is a machine used to propel the liquid cargo from the tank into a pipe so that it may reach the shore tank (be discharged). We have learnt in our school days that the atmosphere can support a column of 10.336 m


Oil cargoes, like any other substance, can be measured in volume or weight. The volume will vary with temperature and hence it should be expressed in standard units so that a comparative study can be made. Temperature is measured in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees centigrade.


OIL DISCHARGE MONITORING CONTROL SYSTEM System The system required shall be such that the three way valve to allow discharge of the oily water into the sea, shall open once the above condition are satisfied and will remain open until such time as the above

Assessing and Recording Damage To The Ship

Ships in their operations often suffer damage; the damage could be due to weather, wear and tear or due to accidents. In every such condition it is imperative that the ship’s worthiness to face all the situations is maintained. Such maintenance requires assessment of damage,

Bridge Watchkeeping

Watchkeeping during ocean passages Watchkeeping during ocean passages will require all the activities related to performing a navigational watch as discussed previously. In addition, priority is given to the following Lookout During ocean passages, the principle threat to a vessel is the risk of collision.

Law of Collisions

If the master has forgotten his Rules Of The Road he certainly doesn’t tell the third mate Earliest collision rules, established by custom in accordance with dictates of good seamanship, were enforced by Admiralty Courts in the UK and formed part of their maritime law.

Shipboard Accident Response

Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs insure shipowners and managers for their liabilities to third parties arising out of the operation of ships. The P&I Club does not insure the hull or machinery of a ship, only liabilities. The main elements of P&I cover addressed in