Annex II Regulations for the control of pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
- Details the discharge criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk
- The discharge of their residues is allowed only to reception facilities until certain concentrations and conditions ( which vary with the category of substances) are complied with
- In any case , no discharge of residues containing noxious substances is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land.
- Require chemical tankers built after 1 july 1986 to comply with the international code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code)
Categories of Noxious Liquid Substances (NLS)
Noxious liquid chemicals are divided into four categories X,Y,Z and other substances (OS) such that substances in category X pose the greatest threat to the marine environment and those in category other substances (OS) the least
All bulk cargoes are divided into four categories.
Definition of each category
Types of chemical Tankers
Carriage of chemicals in bulk covered by:
SOLAS Chapter VII- Carriage of dangerous goods
MARPOL Annex II- Regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in Bulk.
Both conventions require chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the international code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk (IBC Code)
With reference to MARPOL Annex II, What is IBC Code
MAPROL Annex II requires chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the international code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code).
The IBC code provides an international standard for the safe carriage by sea of dangerous and noxious liquid substances (NLS) in bulk.
To minimize the risks to ships, their crews and the environment, the code prescribes the:
- Design and construction standards of ships
- The equipment they should carry
With due regard to the category of NLS cargo (Category: X,Y.Z or OS) they will carry.
Types of chemical tankers based on degree of hazard
Bulk chemical code divide chemical tankers into three categories ship type 1,2 and 3, which reflect the dangerous and noxious properties of the cargoes to be carried.
Ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 (in the IBC code) products with ver severe environmental and safety hazards which require maximum preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo.
Ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products (in the IBC code) which appreciably severe environemntal and safety hazards which require significant preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo.
Ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 (in the IBC code) products with sufficiently severe environemtal and safety hazards which require a moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged condition.
Thus a type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended for the trasnporation of products considered to present the greatest overall hazard and type 2 and type 3 for products of progressively lesser hazards.
Accordingly, a type 1 ship should survive the most the most sever standard of famage and its cargo tanks should be located at the maximum prescribed distance inboard from the shell plating.
State that the requirements of annex II apply to all ships carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk
- The requirements on annex II apply to all ships certified to carry Noxious liquid substances in bulk.
- Require chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the International Code for the construction and Equipments of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code)
- Bulk chemical codes divide chemical tankers into three categories, ship type 1,2 and 3 , which reflect the dangerous and noxious properties of the cargoes to be carried.
Operational Discharge of Residues of NLS
Annex II regulation 13 contains control of discharges of residues of noxious liquid substances.
The maximum permitted residue residue in the tank and its associated piping left after discharge is set at a maximum of 75 litres for products in categories X,Y and Z
Most chemicals or noxious liquids will mix with water and are not easily separated from it. The main principle of Annex II is ti dilute cargo residues in seawater to prescribed limits depending on their pollution hazard and facilitate the distrbution of discharges by utilising the wake of the ship.
The discharges are required to be made below the water line and in such a way that the water/residue mixture in the ship boundary layer and carried aft when en route to be distributed by the wake astern.
The provision in annex II regulation 13 allow the discharges into the sea of residues of substances in category X,Y or Z , provided;
- The ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots
- The discharge is made below the waterline not exceeding the designed maximum water discharge rate.
- The discharge is made at a distance of not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land in depth of water of not less than 25 metres.
The discharge of residues requirements of Annex II do not apply when such a discharge:
- Is necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship or saving life at sea;
- Results from damage to a ship or its equipment
- Is approved by admisnitration (govt) when combating specific pollution incident.
State that the conditions for th dsicharge of any effluent containing subtances faling in those categories are specified.
The control of discharges of residues of noxious liquid substances or ballast water, tank washings or other mixtures containing the substances from a ship specified in MARPOL Annex II, regulation 13.
The provision in annex II regulation 13 allow the discharge into the sea of residues of substances in category X,Y or Z, provided:
- The ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots
- The discharge is made below the water line not exceedding the designed maximum water discharge rate.
- The discharge is made at a distance of not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land in a depth of water of not less than 25 metres.
Procedure and Arrangement (P&A) Manual
State that each ship which is certified for the carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk should be provided with a procedures and arrangements manual.
Every ship certified to carry NLS of category X,Y or Z in bulk, has on board an approved manual in standard format.
The main purpose of the manual is to identify for the ship’s officers the physical arrangements and all the operational procedures that must be followed in order to comply with the requirements of MARPOL Annex II, with respect to:
- Main features of Marpol 73/78, Annex II
- Decription of ships equipment and arrangements
- Cargo loading, Unloading and tank stripping procedures
- Procedures relatinf to cleaning of cargo tanks, the dsicharge of residues , Ballasting and deballasting
- Flow Diagrams & drawings
State the benefits of P&A Manual
P&A Manual provides master with guidance on ship’s arrangements and equipment to enable compliance with MARPOL Annex II
All operational procedures with respect to
- Cargo handling
- Tank cleaning
- Slops handling
- Residue discharging
- Ballasting and
Cargo record book for ships carrying NLS in Bulk
State that each ship should be rpovided with a cargo record book which should be completed, on a tank by tank basis, whenever any operations with respect to a noxious liquid substance take place
Regulation 9 of annex II to MARPOL 73 states that the Cargo Record Book must be completed, on a tank-to-tank basis, whenever any of the following operations are carried out:
- Loading of cargo
- Discharging (Unloading) of cargo
- Internal transfer of cargo
- Mandatory prewash in accordance with the ship Procedures and Arrangements Manual
- Cleaning of cargo tanks
- Discharge into sea of tank washings
- Ballasting of cargo tanks
- Dsicharge of ballast water from cargo tanks
- Accidental or other exceptional discharge
- Each operation entry is signed by the officer in charge of the operation and the master is required to sign each page.
- The book kept in such a place as to be readily availaible for inspection and is liable to be inspected at any time while the vessel is in port.
- Cargo record book retained for a period of three years after the last entry has been made.
Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for NLS
Regulation 17 of Annex II requires, every ship of 150 gross tonnage and above certified to carry Noxious Liquid Substances in bulk carries on board a shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for Noxious Liquid Substances approved by the Administration.
State the main purpose of emergency plan
The primary objectives of this plan are to
- Prevent pollution
- Stop or minimize outflow when a damged to the ship or its requirements occurs
- Stop or minimize outflow when a operational spill occurs in excess of the quantity or instantatneous rate permitted under the MARPOL convention.
Main content of emergency plan
The emergency plan provides guidance to the master and crew of the ship with steps to be taken when NLS spill has happened or likely to happen, and it consist of at least:
- The procedure to report a noxious liquid substances pollution incident;
- The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of Noxious liquid substances pollution incident
- A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of Noxious liquid substances following the incident;
- The procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution
Basic explanation of SMPEP
Regulation 37 of MARPOL Annex I requires that oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage and above and all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above carry an approved Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP).
Regulation 17 of MARPOL Annex II makes similar stipulations that all ships of 150 gross tonnage and above carrying NLS in bulk carry an approved shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for NLS.
SMPEP for NLS may be combined with a SOPEP, since most of their contents are the same and one combined plan on board is more practical than two separate ones in case of an emergency.
To make it clear that the plan is combined one, it should be referred to as a Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP)
Ships to which both regulations apply (certified to carry Oil and NLS) may have a combined plan called a Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP)